Guide Terror Threat: International and Homegrown Terrorists and Their Threat to Canada

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In the s, Canada was home to at least two groups connected to the Islamist terrorist organization Al Qaeda. A cell of the Armed Islamic Group, an Algerian group affiliated with Al Qaeda, operated in Montreal, raising funds through theft and fraud. Several members had trained at an Al Qaeda camp in Afghanistan, including Ahmed Ressam, who was caught in Port Angeles, Washington, in December with explosives and detonators in his trunk.

Ressam, whom the media dubbed the Millennium Bomber, intended to blow up the Los Angeles International Airport on or around 1 January Khadr raised funds in Canada for Islamist attacks abroad, including the bombing of the Egyptian embassy in Islamabad, which killed 18 and injured Canada responded by dispatching troops to Afghanistan and the Arabian Gulf to take part in the US-led international campaign against terrorism.

In the fall of , Parliament passed the ANTI-TERRORISM ACT , which increased the sentences for terrorist acts, made it easier to freeze or seize financial assets of suspected terrorists, restricted the public release of sensitive information, and gave the police new powers of surveillance, arrest, and detention. In November , bin Laden suggested that Canada was one of the countries Al Qaeda would target in future attacks. The US-led coalition in Afghanistan shut down Al Qaeda's training facilities and disrupted the group's organization, making it difficult for the organization to launch further attacks.

But Al Qaeda had already trained a large number of terrorists, members of other organizations who remain connected to Al Qaeda through an international terrorist network. They took up the cause, carrying out bombings in several cities, including Bali , Madrid , and London Al Qaeda also inspired a home-grown terrorist threat in Canada and several other countries. In , police arrested Momin Khawaja, an Ottawa native who had worked with British Islamists on a plot to set off bombs in the United Kingdom.

In , police arrested 18 individuals in Toronto the Toronto 18 and charged them with planning terrorist attacks.

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The 18 also intended to storm the Parliament buildings in Ottawa, where they would take hostages and behead the prime minister. Seven of the suspects were released after charges against them were stayed.

2018 Public Report on the Terrorism Threat to Canada

Eleven were eventually found guilty. Many branches of the federal government are involved in Canada's anti-terrorism efforts. The Canadian Border Services Agency, the Department of Public Safety, and the Department of Citizenship and Immigration use security certificates to remove from Canada individuals who do not have a right to be in the country and who pose a serious threat. At the Department of National Defence, the Chief of Defence Intelligence leads an organization that analyses terrorist threats that may affect the Canadian Forces. The Communications Security Establishment CSE collects intelligence by monitoring foreign telecommunications and other signals exchanged between terrorists.

Canada receives much intelligence through sharing arrangements with its allies, particularly the US, Great Britain, and Australia. Joint Task Force Two JTF 2 , a special operations unit of the Canadian Forces, is trained to carry out counter-terrorism operations at home and abroad. Canadian Disaster Database The Canadian Disaster Database CDD contains detailed disaster information on more than natural, technological and conflict events excluding war that have happened since at home or abroad and that have directly affected Canadians.

Search The Canadian Encyclopedia. Remember me. I forgot my password. Why sign up? Create Account. Accessed 29 September In The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Article published May 29, ; Last Edited September 26, The Canadian Encyclopedia , s.

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Article by Stephen Azzi. Terrorism Terrorism is the use of violence or threats of violence by individuals or groups against civilians or property. Debates around violence perpetrated by male white supremacists almost all invariably centre around gun control or the need for gun reform or connections between mental illness and a propensity for violence, but rarely do they ever involve discussion over whether the perpetrators had terrorist intent and political motivation. This has changed in recent years following several prominent attacks.

However, prosecutors in that state and in that case, did not charge the assailant with terrorism. Conversely, James Harris Jackson, a white man, who fatally stabbed a black man in March in New York City was charged with terrorism for an attack motivated by similar intention. While it is not possible to detail each of them in this paper, there have been dozens of other attacks perpetrated by white men, under the age of 30, who have affiliations with white nationalist and white supremacist groups that have not been treated as cases of domestic terrorism.

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This purposeful pivot away from the evidence that suggests a growing problem of violence spreading in one particular community represents a political decision not to act with the same vigour against that group as other groups, such as Muslim men. The contemporary political landscape in America suggests that the definition of terrorism will continue to be controversial and that in fact, the controversy will not be resolved without the political will that would stop the urge to bend the definition of terrorism to suit a narrow partisan agenda or to ignore evidence of a growing terrorist threat.

In the broader context of American society and politics, there is now an urgent need to question the previously-held definitions of terrorism and to question if these definitions are truly helpful in tackling terrorism. Where they are not — either because they are unfairly applied to different groups seen as threats or not applied at all — it must be asked if the US government and law enforcement sectors are standing by while domestic terrorism is perpetrated on their watch and why. The concept of terrorism is difficult to define because the politics involved in doing so are difficult to manage.

In this paper, I have attempted to traverse the difficult terrain that is the concept of a definition of terrorism. A section of this paper illustrated how a change in perspective has brought resolutions to various countries over modern political history, with the key determinant for the success of that process being political will.

The Rise of the Lone Wolf Terrorist

In attempting to understand if those kinds of resolutions are at all possible in present-day global politics, the case study of the United States of America was examined. The conclusion in this paper is that where political influence trumps facts-based evidence, the definition of terrorism and who constitutes a terrorist threat becomes even more complex and controversial with little possibility of that controversy being resolved because of a disagreement on the basic facts.

Ultimately this irregular application of definitions harms work that can and should be done in terms of anti- and counter-terrorism initiatives and only leaves governments and populations more exposed than protected from harm in the long-run. Canetti, D. Carver, A. Chailand, G. Ganor, B. Hankes, K. The Alt-Right is Killing People. Masters, J and Rebaza, C. Moran, M. Neiwert, D.

Has the Canadian government failed to stop homegrown terrorism?

Nixon, R. Peled, S. Sanchez, R. Shanahan, T. Routledge Handbook of Critical Terrorism Studies.

Homegrown Terrorists in Were Almost All Right-Wing - The Atlantic

London: Routledge. Shane, S. Taylor, L. Walt, SM. Weinberg, L. Political Parties and Terrorist Groups. London and New York: Routledge. Zanona, M. Tom Martin Date written: May Before you download your free e-book, please consider donating to support open access publishing.

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Many thanks! Donations are voluntary and not required to download the e-book - your link to download is below. Submissions Advertise Article Award About. Violent extremism Ethnic violence Militia movement Resistance movement. Methods Tactics. Terrorist groups. Designated terrorist groups Charities accused of ties to terrorism. Response to terrorism. Counter-terrorism International conventions Anti-terrorism legislation Terrorism insurance. Public Safety Canada. Retrieved 26 December Anti-Defamation League.

January Global News Canada. Retrieved August 8, Jewish Telegraph Agency. The Canadian Encyclopedia.